For example, at least one researcher article has suggested a relationship between the following facts and sexual reoffense: psychopathy, deviant arousal, cognitive distortions, truancy, a prior (known) sex offense, blaming the victim, and use of threat/force. (1998) Empirically-based treatment interventions for juvenile sex offenders.
(2004) A prospective Longitudinal Study of Sexual Recidivism Among Adolescent Sex Offenders, Sex Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Vol. Antisocial personality disorder is not diagnosable until the patient is 18 years of age.
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The United States Supreme Court in “Three general differences between juveniles under 18 and adults demonstrate that juvenile offenders cannot with reliability be classified among the worst offenders.
Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000Given the failure to identify solid recidivism factors it is not surprising that predictive juvenile actuarial instruments have not been useful. First, as any parent knows and as the scientific and sociological studies respondent and his amici cite tend to confirm, "[a] lack of maturity and an underdeveloped sense of responsibility are found in youth more often than in adults and are more understandable among the young.
The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool–II (J-SORRAT-II), Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth SAVRY), and Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol–II (J-SOAP-II) to have generally been found to be inadequate to predict sexual recidivism. et al, Assessing Risk for Violence in Adolescents who have Sexually Offended: A comparison of the J-SOAP-II, J-SORRAT-II, and SAVRY, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. These qualities often result in impetuous and ill-considered actions and decisions." , at 115-116 ("Even the normal 16-year-old customarily lacks the maturity of an adult").
It has been noted that "adolescents are overrepresented statistically in virtually every category of reckless behavior." Arnett, Reckless Behavior in Adolescence: A Developmental Perspective, 12 Developmental Review 339 (1992).